Eukaryotic Cells vs. Prokaryotic Cells

Difference Between Eukaryotic Cells and Prokaryotic Cells

The cells are the essential building blocks of everything that is there around us. The composition of cells can be of two types; eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells. The first part of the terms “eu” and “pro”, mean good and before respectively. “karyotic” means the nucleus. Therefore, “eukaryotic” means the good nucleus while “prokaryotic” means before a nucleus. There are many similar features between the two types of cells. Both these cells contain Ribosome, both have cytoplasm, and both of them are enclosed in the plasma membrane. The chemical compositions of the cells are also the same. Deoxyribonucleic acid is the same in both. Both contain Ribonucleic acid. Their life processes are the same too.

Eukaryotic cells were located in the oldest species in the universe. The cells are surrounded on the outside with the membrane, plasma, cytoplasm and nucleus that makes them distinct from other structures. Eukaryotic cells have been observed in the formation of all major species around the world. In these, the cell division is very different from other organisms. In these cells, Chromosomes are also present. Eukaryotic cell structures are different in plants and animals. They are found in the most complex of organisms. Eukaryotic cells also support nuclear fusion. These cells have complex photosynthesis and respiratory processes.

Prokaryotic cells are different in the sense that they do not contain the nucleus. They can be in different shapes and have hair like structures on their outer surface. Especially bacteria, algae and such organisms, which are mainly found in marshes or swamps, are formed by prokaryotic cells. These cells support nutrient cycles formed by the bacteria. Prokaryotes were found even before eukaryotes. We know that they have the simple cell structure, but they are present in double cell structures and multi-cellular organisms as well. Their structures are quite simple and not as complex as eukaryotic cells. They have an outer surface that protects them. They also contain cytoplasm, the plasma membrane, ribosome in them. They do not support breeding; their reproduction process is asexual.

Prokaryotic cells are said to be of an earlier origin than Eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells are different from Prokaryotic cells, as they have the nucleus in their structures. The Deoxyribonucleic acid within the Eukaryotic cells, remains with the nucleus, while in Prokaryotic cells, it is free. Eukaryotic cells have a very complex composition and are ten times larger than the Prokaryotic cells. The Prokaryotic cells are very simple in structure and smaller. All animals, fungi, plants and even seaweed and algae are made up of Eukaryotic cells while, bacteria is made of Prokaryotic cells. Their processes of reproduction are also different, as Eukaryotic cells maintain nuclear fusion, called meiosis, and Prokaryotic cells reproduce through asexual process – the binary fission. Other than these differences, they differ in the composition of their cell membranes, cell walls, cytoplasm structures and their system of electronic transport.


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