Pollination vs. Fertilization

Difference Between Pollination And Fertilization

Pollination

Pollination, in flowering plants, is the process where pollen is transferred from anther to stigma of the same or another flower. In gymnosperms, the other major group of seed plants, pollination typically carries pollen from a male cone to a female cone. Pollen is transported by a variety of carriers, known as pollen vectors, including wind, water, various insects, and bats. Pollen is produced in great abundance, especially by wind-pollinated flowers..

An essential stage in the sexual reproduction of all seed plants, pollination is important in agriculture as a stimulus for seed and fruit production. Also, production of new crop varieties involves combining beneficial hereditary traits of parental stocks through artificial pollination of one variety by another.

Fertilization

Fertilization in plants is basically the same as in animals, except that in higher plants (angiosperms) fertilization may be described as double. In the latter case, at pollination (the transfer of pollen from male to female organs), the pollen grain attaches to the stigma (female part) of the flower. A pollen tube bearing two male nuclei grows down from the stigma to the egg cell, where it releases the nuclei. One male nucleus unites with the egg nucleus, and the other unites with a pair of so-called polar nuclei. The nucleus of the embryo arises from the first union, and the nucleus of the endosperm (a food-storage organ for the embryo) arises from the second union.

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