How arguing and discussing are different
Where the nature of the action is concerned, to an onlooker arguing and discussing appear to be the same thing. However there is a large difference between them because they are definitely not the same. When you argue a point you present a statement and the other person presents a counter statement for the other side of the argument. When you discuss something you deliberate on a particular subject.
When you argue over something, it does not naturally follow that you will arrive at a satisfactory conclusion. When you discuss a particular topic, you will arrive at a conclusion. This is the major difference between discussing and arguing.
In an argument there is a tone of anger and displeasure. This tone is not present in a discussion, which tends to be intellectual and developed. A discussion does bring up the possibility of opposing points of view and these can lead to an argument because of the objections that can be raised in the act of discussing.
An argument usually ends in a verbal fight. A discussion on the other hand ends in a peaceful resolution because the participants end up with a strengthened relationship as a result of the talking. Arguing that does not end peacefully can sometimes result in enmity between those involved.
In international games and sports, arguments are something to be avoided. When players argue among themselves or with the umpire they are punished with penalties or by being expelled from the game. The punishment does depend on the rules of the game. The decision of the umpire has to be respected and obeyed in a game.