Difference Between Blood Types A,B,AB,O

What are the differences in blood types? All the blood in the human body is immersed in a…

What are the differences in blood types?

All the blood in the human body is immersed in a complex fluid mixture called plasma. The cells of the body are made up of 45% blood and 55% plasma. There are four types of human blood – A, B, AB, and O. The type of blood a person has depends on the chain of sugars that bond to the membrane lipids and proteins of the red blood cells. AB blood type is made up of both A and B gangliosides, and the determinants are short, branched chains of oligosaccharide. About 85% of the population has RH positive blood, which means it contains the rehsus factor. The remaining 15% have RH negative blood.

Blood Type A

Blood contains two agglutinogens, named A and B, that trigger the production of antibodies to kill or neutralize what they see as being foreign substances. They have complementary agglutinins in the plasma, named a and b. When a person has specific agglutinogens in the red blood cells, the complement does not exist in the plasma. Therefore, a person who has A agglutinogens in the red blood cells would not have a agglutinins in the plasma. The blood type would be A and if rhesus is present, it would be A+VE. If there is no rhesus, it would be A-VE.

Blood Type B

A person whose red blood cells contain the agglutinogen B does not have the corresponding b agglutinin in the plasma and therefore has type B blood. If there is rhesus present, it is B+VE and if there is no rhesus, it is B-VE.

Blood Type AB

The red blood cells contain both A and B agglutinogens and do not have any complementary agglutinins in the plasma. This is blood type AB and can be positive or negative depending on the presence of rehsus. A person with AB blood is considered a universal blood donor but can only give blood to those who have AB blood.

Blood Type O

Those with this blood type do not have either A or B agglutinogens, nor do they have the complementary a and b agglutinins in the plasma. Therefore the blood type is classified as 0 and can be O+VE or O-VE. This blood group is regarded as being universal and a person can donate blood to any of the blood types.

Blood type plays an important role in blood transfusion. A person must be given the blood suitable for his type. If not the results could be fatat.


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