Difference Between Dynamic Microphone and Condenser Microphone
The major function of a microphone is to encapsulate the sound of a performing artist or the sounds of people in conversation. While there are a wide array of microphones available in the market, some of the most well preferred and popular microphones are the condenser and dynamic microphones. In general, people do not have the awareness of the variations between dynamic and condenser microphones as also their usage. The article aims at explaining the principles involved in the working behind these two microphones so that people have a general comprehension of these microphones.
A condenser microphone makes the use of a diaphragm as an integral part of a capacitor, which moves due to the vibrations caused by the voices emitting from inside. These vibrations move the plates and the distance between these plates settle on the sound that is captured. These microphones are used frequently to record voice sounds like those of instruments or the sound effects in case they are being used in a live concert.
The working of the condenser microphone depends on its components. A condenser microphone consists of two plates of which one plate is fixed while the other is movable. These two plates create a capacitor, which is charged through the electric supply. The moment the sound waves cause one of the plates to move, it creates an electrostatic charge between the plates, which in turn alters the voltage between the plates. The different capacitance is proportional to the displacement of the plate, which is dependent on the power of the sound waves. A small current flows between the plates in this condition and this current is required to be greater than before it reaches the ears of the listener.
A dynamic microphone is either a mobile coil or a ribbon microphone. In a moving coil microphone, the coil is balanced in a magnetic field and when sound waves beat the diaphragm in the microphone, this coil moves that produces an electric signal of the sound. Where a ribbon is used, it acts upon the same function of a coil. As a diaphragm moves due to the sound waves, the magnet stimulates a current in the coil which can be enlarged and stored as an analog sound signal. The Dynamic microphones are far wider in use and are to be seen at any live music or public speaking program. These microphones use electromagnetic conduction to arrest the sound. Performers, singers, orators, and politicians use these dynamic microphones.