Difference Between Fascism and Communism and Totalitarianism
Capitalism, fascism, communism, socialism and totalitarianism are different types of political ideologies. These ideologies were in force in different countries and the world was divided in different factions because of these ideologies. It was the dissolution of the communist Soviet Union during the eighties and the starting of a revolution called the Internet that caused a change in the political conditions in the world. Diverse ideologies have fused because of the freedom of information. Therefore, it cannot be said that a country strictly follows a particular ideology. No ideology can be so rigid in the modern times. Every country wants to be in the mainstream and benefit from economic liberalization. However, it is important to know what these ideologies mean, and this article intends to show the difference between fascism, communism and totalitarianism.
This ideology believes that the country, nation or race is above everything else. This ideology came into being in the Italy of Mussolini and later it spread to Germany where Adolf Hitler caused the ruin of his nation and plunged the world into World War II because he thought that the Nazi race was the most superior and was intended to govern the world. In Fascism, the state is upheld for the purpose of false propaganda and censorship to suppress any opposition. In fascism, the state is absolute; individuals are below that. Political thinkers consider fascism to be on the far right of the political spectrum. Contrary to what is popularly believed, fascism is opposed to communism, liberalism, democracy, conservatism and even capitalism. Fascists believe in war; they believe that they are superior and that they need to establish this supremacy over other nations.
Communism is still popular in some places of the world despite having been diluted after the downfall of the Soviet Union during the eighties. The breakaway republics of former USSR now have inclinations towards capitalism as they are influenced by the progress of the West.
Communism propagates a classless society where everyone is equal and the state is superfluous. It projects an ideal scene, and is not possible to accomplish. Communism can never be perfect. It encourages common ownership of property and goods. Communism does not approve of private property and any benefit for the individual.
Some believe that socialism and communism are the same, but according to Marx, socialism is only the beginning of communism, which is an extreme.
Totalitarianism is the belief in complete political power in the hands of a single person or class. This political ideology does not recognize the benefit of individuals and places supreme importance on the authority of the state. This is similar to the personality cultism where the charm of a single individual affects the masses by false propaganda and brutal force. The only way to defeat any opposition is through terrorism, restriction of speech and freedom of action, and mass surveillance. This political ideology is similar to dictatorship and authoritarianism.
Fascism believes in the superiority of a person or class and is similar to totalitarianism; but communism differs from these two ideologies as it propagates a class less and stateless society. In contrast, Fascism and totalitarianism believes in unbridled power in the hands of a person or class, and restricts freedom of action and speech of the masses.