Monism vs. Dualism

Difference Between Monism and Dualism Monism and dualism are philosophical concepts. These words explain themselves. Mono means one…

Difference Between Monism and Dualism

Monism and dualism are philosophical concepts. These words explain themselves. Mono means one and monism advocates the oneness of soul while dualism advocates the existence of individual soul and the supreme soul.

According to Monism everything in this universe is unified into one and there is no diversification in the universe while dualism does not believe in this concept.

Monism finds its roots in Indian Philosophy. According to this philosophy Brahman is comprised of space and matter and is the supreme entity in this universe. Time, energy, existence of everything on this universe is believed to have its core in the Supreme Brahman. All the souls existent in this universe are divine. Brahman is manifested in all the individuals while it withdraws itself from all these at the end of an era. This is known as deluge. According to monism a man is good and divine as God and is equally powerful.

Dualism believes in the existence of God as a separate entity and considers him as the supreme power that is much more powerful than man. Man lives within in his limitations of power and time while God is present everywhere and in everything. Man is born and he dies while god is immortal. According to Indian Philosophy, dualism is known as ‘dvaita’.

According to this philosophy of ‘dvaita’ individual self or the Atman cannot become supreme power. ‘Jiva’ or the individual self cannot become supreme self ‘Brahman’. Even ‘Mukti’ or the real bliss cannot make Jiva comparable to Brahman or ‘Paramatman’.

Monism or Advaita finds this universe mystery or ‘maya’ and is mere illusion. Dualism believes that universe is existent and true and it is no illusion or maya. It believes that Jiva is not permanent but Brahman is.

From the above understanding of Monism and dualism we can conclude that:

  • Monism believes in oneness while dualism believes in existence of jiva and supreme power as two separate entities.
  • Monism believes that man is as divine and as powerful as God or the supreme power but dualism finds Brahman more powerful than Jiva and both cannot unify even after real bliss or Mukti.
  • According to Monism the individual gets merged into Brahman after self liberation but this unification is not possible according to dualism.



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